When traveling by ship or boat, the common navigation tools are compass, maps and charts. These are traditional tools that have become useful for thousands of years. Travelers are common with these tools and adept at using them. As technology advanced, it didn’t only update navigation methods but also transformed the way sea navigation is done. New marine equipment and electronics are now available for consumers. GPS Garmin marine is one of the most common GPS electronics that is used to determine your location when at sea. People operating boats don’t have to panic when lost at sea. Knowing your location will easily eliminate the idea of being lost. With the advancement in marine communications, it is also easier to be in touch with the local authorities to let them know of your location.
Unlike land transportation, the sea is a vast terrain that does not have street signs that will help easily determine location. So a Garmin marine GPS system is like a virtual map that can provide location information and routes to take. It is especially designed for boats and ships to provide nautical information and charts.
For their own boats and vessels, many have already chosen to install this kind of equipment. They have experienced a new sense of control and manageability when traveling. Choosing a particular route towards a destination can be provided by the auto-guide function that is available in more advanced equipment. There are also alerts and warnings provided by the system when there are approaching vessels, other types of ships or natural obstacles like a small island.
Safety of everyone is a very important and must be considered as a priority when traveling by ship. Some ships can also avoid natural disasters by having a good navigation system that provides information on routes that are safe to pass. The risk that comes with sea navigation can be lessened.
For modern marine electronics and equipment, it is important that consumers rely on trustworthy manufacturers. One of the popular and well-recognized GPS systems is Garmin marine GPS. A lot of retailers and manufacturers can provide exceptional quality of modern marine equipment and products that can enhance navigation experience.
Education never ends – it is not said without reason. We are educated all our lives and getting an education not only is a great achievement but something that gives you the tools to find your own way in the world. Education is indispensable; little do we realize how much more it can bring to us in terms of worldly amplifications. Anyone can have propensity and the natural endowment for education. But one might not have the resources to finance their education. You certainly can’t let lack of resources impede you from advancing your prospects through education. Then you accidentally stumble upon the word ‘education loans’. Loans for education – you have never thought about it as a feasible arrangement. Education loans can open newer panoramas in regard to your education aspirations.
Education loans are open to all people in all its myriad forms. Education loans can realize your education plans or the education plans of your children. You can strengthen you own future and the future of your son or daughter with education loans. An extensive range of student and parent loans are presented under the category of education loans. There are many types of education loans. Discerning about the types of education loans will help you in making the accurate decision. The single largest resource of education loans is federal loan. The two main federal education loan programmes are the Federal Family Education Loan Programme and the Federal Direct Loan Programme. In the Federal Family Education Loan Programme the bank, credit union or the school is the lender. While the federal direct loans programme, the department of education is the lender.
Private education loans are offered to people so that they can provide financial backup to their education plans. Private education loans are not endorsed by other government agencies but are provided by other financial institutions. Private education loans programme are optimum for both undergraduate and graduate studies.
Formal education is requisite for future success. Though this is not a hard and fast rule, but education certainly helps you in gaining an upper hand. With universities getting expensive by each day an education loan will certainly give you an incentive to go ahead with your education plans. Each year while contemplating on your education plans the thought of finances almost invariably comes in. While working towards you degree, you are constantly plagued about paying for the education fees, books, and other living expenses. Education loans can provide funding for tuition fees, board and room, books computer, and even student travel. An education loan can help you with all these expenses. Education loans are sufficient enough to take care of all these expenses. If you have been forced to drop your education for any reason, you can still take up your education at any point of time. Irrespective of your age and also where you have left your education.
There are no specific eligibility criteria for education loans. Any person who is in need of sponsorship for education can find an education loan that befits his or her financial necessity. Loan amount on education loans vary with the kind of education you want to pursue. The repayment options with education loans will similarly accommodate your personal financial preferences. You can either repay interest amount while still in school or six months after graduation. Education loans offer upto ten years for repayments. The refund alternatives on education loans also include deferment, forbearance and consolidation. The various sites on education loans can give you innumerable repayment options and monetary remuneration.
Education loans will help you in planning your life after graduation. However, an education loan like every loan is a huge financial obligation. An education loans is generally the first substantial loan for most people and therefore the first major expense. Do not be completely dependent on your education loans for the funding of your complete education. Try to apply for any other financial sustenance like university grants, scholarships, fellowships, work study programmes and assistance ship and any other form of aid. This will certainly encourage a fluid dispensation of your education loans. You can start by going to the financial aid office in your school or university. It will provide you further insight to the kind of education loans, you must apply for.
Education is an experience of life. It is so rewarding in itself that it helps you to manage almost everything in your life. Education loans discipline your impulse towards education and training into a fruitful contrivance. The payoff is delicious in terms of improved quality of life. Education is expensive! Is it? With education loans it can’t be. Now, you don’t have to take the road in front of you. Make your own road with education loans.
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Are you not sure what Business to buy? Need to know what is a fair deal?
Martin Smith thought he was buying an established business with good credit and collectable accounts receivable. The day after settlement the surprises began.
Inventory could not be used because expiration dates had past. Money shown as receivable had already been collected. Vendors that were only willing to ship COD. Over $100,000 of real problems that should have been detected during the business purchase process popped up and almost shut Martin down.
Can you afford to be surprised? Of course not.
You have the power to not end up like Martin.
Owning your own business is part of the American Dream. Buying a business has many advantages over starting one from scratch if you know how. Be prepared and get all the benefits of buying an existing business.
Tangible benefits such as existing cash flow, existing customer base, existing systems, knowledgeable employees, and locations can be obtained cheaper by buying an existing business than starting from scratch.
1. Understand and Know What You do Well and Like
You must really look at the activities you like to do and find a business that allows you to do them. For instance some people want customers to come to them. A retail store may work well for them. On the other hand some owners would loose their minds staying in a store all day; perhaps something with outside sales will work for them.
Are you a people person, a thinker, a leader, or a salesperson? Do you like steady hours, flexibility etc. How much money do you have to purchase with? How much money must you make every week?
Remember the process of buying the business is not the same as running one. Do everything possible to make sure you buy one you will love running.
2. Make a Comprehensive Search for a Business
Make sure you know how to look for a business. Don’t just go to one source but really check multiple reliable sources to find the business that is right for you.
Systematize your notes so you know what you looked at. Make sure you compare your strengths and weaknesses with the day-to-day tasks of running the business.
3. Understand and Value the Business Properly
Understand the basic financial techniques to value a business; it’s cash flow and other assets. Know how to prepare a basic business plan in order to make projections into the future.
Understand how the business is getting its customers. Know how it delivers goods and services. Know the cash flow and how you will keep the current cash flow and then grow the cash flow.
4. Know how to structure and finance a business
Have a basic understanding of how the business valuation and related cash flow tie together. Make sure you know a number of possible ways to put a transaction together to overcome different risks.
Understand what may be financed by a conventional bank loan, a SBA loan or seller take-back. Understand how to take your outline deal and put it into a final enforceable contract.
5. Perform Due Diligence Thoroughly and Correctly
Know what to look for when investigating a company. Know how to tie accounting records into source documents. Understand inventory, equipment, vehicle titling and other problems. Understand what should occur at settlement. Make sure you are getting what you have agreed to pay for.
Gorakhpur is one of the exclusive cities in India; it is situated near bank of river Rapti in Uttar Pradesh. On tours to Uttar Pradesh (Gorakhpur) you will come across so many beautiful and significant places of tourist interest. Gorakhpur is best place for recreation or traveling.
There is a lot of people come every year to see the Gorakhpur. There are too many temples and some historical building for visiting.
In Gorakhpur there are lot of place for traveling like Gorakhnath Temple, Gita press, Tarkulaha Devi temple and Chauri Chaura.
To see the Gorakhnath temple lot of visitors comes here every year. This temple placed in very large scale. Every here held the fair of Khichdi, at that time many visitors comes here from many villages and cities to Goraknath temple to worship of Lord Shiva and enjoying the fair. It is just 5 Km far from the Gorakhpur railway station.
There is one of the most significant place is Gita Press in Gorakhpur was establishing in the year of 1923 to spread the education about the Gita epic. It is just situated in Urdu Market of Gorakhpur.
The city of Gorakhpur is also a holy place you can also see the big Imambara here. This is constructed by Nawab Asafuddin in near about 1775. It is situated in Maya Bazaar just behind the Kotwali police station.
If you want to visit more other place, you could be going Tarkulaha Devi Temple is most exclusive attraction near Gorakhpur. This holy temple is just located near around 4 to 5 kilometers from Chauri Cahura. This temple has been founded by Deeb Bandhu Singh was the great freedom fighter.
Everyday many Buddhist Pilgrims visitors also come in Gorakhpur for visiting the Kushinagar. This is that place where Lord Buddha preached his last sermon. On every year on Buddha Purnima the lots of people in Kushi nagar celebrate the birthday of Lord Buddha. It just far 55 to 60 kilometers from Gorakhpu Railway stations. They just hire the bus or jeep for going Kushinagar; it’s just near the Deoria.
After visiting the, you can also see the gorakhpur city like Urdu Bazaar, Golghar Market, Rapti Nagar, Tara Mandal and Geta Vatika garden. The main market for shopping purpose, Golghar market is famous, you can purchase here everything which is you needed.
So if you are interested in traveling, to must be come one time in gorakhpur for traveling and see many beautiful and some historical places here. There are many travel agency and travel agent who are guiding you for traveling in city tour and tell them much other knowledge about India tour and city tour. You can also enjoy here your cheap vacation and cheap family holidays here; you just book your tickets online for recreation and enjoying you holidays.
Being well prepared before traveling with your Pit Bull is crucial to having a good trip, especially if he will be going on an airplane with you. There are several things you will need so that your Pit Bull is allowed to board the plane, and many things you should take care of before leaving.
When you call the airline to arrange your flight, you should go ahead and let them know then that your Pit Bull will be traveling with you. Different countries have different guidelines for pets, so your airline should be able to give you specific instructions depending on where you are planning to go. At this time, you should also find out what the airlines rules and regulations are, so that you can be prepared in advance. It is a good idea to call back around two weeks before your scheduled flight to make sure you have everything taken care of. Surprises at the last minute can delay your plans, or stop you from going altogether.
It is not required usually that your pet have a medical exam before flying with you, but it is a good idea, so that any potential problems can be taken care of by your own veterinarian. You will also need to get a certificate from your veterinarian regarding the health of your Pit Bull. There are different guidelines for these depending on where you are traveling to and what the airline mandates. Most require the certificate be dated no more than ten days before the flight. You shouldn’t pack this paperwork, but rather keep it with you while on the plane.
To make sure you don’t lose your Pit Bull, make sure he wears a collar and tag. The tag should have all of your contact information, the date of his last rabies vaccine, and his license. It is a good idea to also have a tag with the contact information for a friend that can be reached, just in case. Purchase a kennel that meets the airline’s requirements, and make sure that you have identification on both the inside and outside of it, just as an extra precaution.
Anything that you put inside your Pit Bull’s crate should be firmly attached to it. You should check with your airline to find out exactly what is allowed. Feed your Pit Bull around four hours before your estimated departure time, and take extra food and water with you, just in case you are late leaving the terminal.
If you take all the necessary precautions, and follow your airlines recommendations, traveling by airplane with your Pit Bull should be easy and enjoyable for you both.
With health care costs soaring through the roof, the cost of health insurance premiums are increasing as well. Health insurance is a necessity, however, when you consider the costs of one visit to the emergency room, surgery to set a broken bone, scans, lab and other costs. When your budget is limited, how can you keep the costs of your health insurance premiums down? There are several steps you can take to reduce your health insurance costs and still maintain adequate medical coverage when you need it.
First step is to consider what health insurance options you have. Does your employer offer a group medical benefit? Many employers (and/or labor unions) offer health benefits to full-time employees. Group health insurance is usually the cheapest way to get medical coverage; an employer can negotiate with health insurance companies to get a group health plan at cheaper rates. In addition, many employers will pay part of the premium, reducing your health insurance cost even further. Another consideration is whether your spouse has health coverage available through their employer? If so, compare your health benefits plan to that of your spouse, and decide which health plan is the better buy. It may be possible to have one spouse carry family health insurance coverage and the other drop their health benefits. Many employers have multiple health insurance options, so review these plans as well. Choose the health plan that best meets your needs at the cheapest rate.
If no health insurance coverage is available through your employer, there are other ways to obtain health insurance coverage. Individual and family private health insurance policies are available. Shop and compare benefits and premiums from each health insurance plan. If you and your family are generally healthy, the new Health Savings Account (HSA) may be worth consideration. The HSA is an account that allows you to save tax-free dollars for your medical/health expenses. Similar to an Individual Retirement Account (IRA), you are limited in the amount that you are allowed to contribute each year; however, with the HSA, withdrawals for health expenses are not penalized, and no tax is paid on the withdrawal. When paired with a health insurance policy that has high deductibles and low rates, the HSA may be ideal for you. Save money in the HSA for deductibles and co-pays, and you’re set.
For those over 65 or permanently disabled, Medicare is available through the federal government. The original Medicare is an 80/20 plan (they pay 80% of eligible expenses and the insured pays 20%) with an annual deductible and a monthly premium. Supplemental health plans are available to cover this deductible and co-pay. These supplemental health plans are usually private and the insured pays a premium. In addition to the original Medicare plan, there are Medicare HMOs. In these Medicare HMO health plans, the Medicare premium is paid to an HMO to provide benefits to the insured. HMO plans are more restrictive in that patients must get care through a network provider, but often these plans cover more prescription drugs and preventive care than original Medicare does.
Recently some employers have offered lower premiums to employees who do not smoke cigarettes. This is currently a controversial topic for some, but it certainly may begin a trend. In the future, employers and their health insurance providers could offer reduced premiums for employees who maintain normal weight, exercise regularly, and receive certain wellness benefits. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle lowers the risk to the health insurance company that they will be paying big bucks in health care down the road. And health insurance, as any other insurance, is all about risk.
Bottom line: going without health insurance coverage is a big risk for you. Find health coverage that you can afford just in case Murphy comes knocking at your door!
Going on a holiday is a great thing that you and your family have probably anticipated for a long time now. If the time is finally right and you have decided to take a break from all the stress and go on a vacation, there are a couple of decisions you need to make. First of all you should decide where exactly you want to go. This can be particularly hard with so many great destinations but if you manage to choose one (and why not more) you can move on to the next big decision – the transportation method. Many people prefer to travel with a plane because it is fast but planes can be very expensive. There are also many downsides to the other known transportation methods as well.
So what is the perfect transportation method of all without any downsides and only advantages? This is a difficult question to answer but the answer is actually – bus tour. Yes, going on a bus tour is something amazing and it hardly has any downsides at all. Keep on reading and you will find a list of some of the advantages of the bus tours.
1. Entertainment – have you ever traveled and gotten bored to death? Traveling can be pretty boring and annoying but if you go on a bus tour you will have some entertainment opportunities. There are TVs in the buses so you can watch a movie and in some of the buses there are TVs in the headrests so you can plug in your headphones and enjoy the movie.
2. Comfort – buses used for bus tours are so comfortable that you might eventually forget that you are traveling. The seats are specially made to make you relax and feel like you are in your own home. You probably already think that it can’t get any better but just keep on reading.
3. Breaks – the driver of the bus usually stops often to take a break and this is the time when you can also take a break. The great thing about that is that the driver will stop in some foreign countries so you will be able to take a look at those as well. That way you will get more foreign countries than just the one you are visiting.
4. Price – the price of the bus tours is unbelievably low. Booking a bus tour is cheap and perfect for people and families who are on a budget. Bus tours are way cheaper than any other transportation method.
5. No driving – one of the best things is that you don’t have to drive. Why not let somebody else handle the driving, parking, traffic and all the hassles for you? You can just sit back and even take a nap while waiting to arrive at the destination that you have dreamed of.
These are just 5 of the advantages of going on a bus tour. If you try it yourself you will discover many more advantages and have an unforgettable experience.
Many people are unclear about the travel industry. Travel agents are often thought to be the same as real estate agents. Becoming a travel agent or more specifically a home based travel agent is an exciting career change or retirement option. Some people do it full time while many do it as a part time business.
A travel agent books travel for customers and is paid by suppliers a commission on the booking. For bookings that suppliers do not pay a commission on, a travel agent also can charge the client a service fee for his/her time. An example is if you were to book a hotel for a client, the hotel would then send a check to the agency after the client checked out. Most hotels pay 10% of the price of the hotel before taxes and fees. A $100 per night hotel reservation would mean $10 a night for the travel agent who made the booking. This hotel would cost the same whether the customer uses a travel agent or books through the hotel directly. In many cases the travel agent can get a better price. It costs the customer nothing to use the travel agent unless the travel agent charges service fees.
Can anyone do this? In order to work with suppliers, you must have an account set up with the supplier. Most require an agency to hold an IATAN, CLIA or ARC number. IATAN stands for International Airlines Travel Agent Network. CLIA stands for Cruise Lines International Association. ARC stands for Airline Reporting Corporation. Each of these memberships requires different things including sales, money in the bank, experience or training in the industry, and membership fees. Many will require Errors and Omissions insurance of $1,000,000 or more.
For the average travel agent, membership is not a possibility with some organizations so the agent will team up with an agency and work as an independent agent or outside agent. There are also advantages of working with an agency because most travel agents cannot make enough in sales with a particular supplier to obtain higher commission levels and bonuses. Working with an agency with many agents can increase the commission percentages the agent gets because of the joint sales of all the agents at the agency. Support is also a very important aspect of being a successful agent. Agents who do not work with others tend to feel more isolated and have to learn to do it all solo. Since no agent can have the experience of being everywhere in the world or staying at every hotel or resort, having others that you can get advice from is really helpful.
The future of travel agencies is always questioned. The truth is the industry has changed in many ways. Some changes were for the better, some for the worse. Many airlines have cut commissions for travel agents. However, there are many other suppliers who are paying travel agents more than they were ten years ago. Cruises used to be booked by only the rich and now people in every income book cruises. Each year more and more people go on cruises. Most people say they want to go on a cruise at least once and many who go on their first come home to want to book another.
You can earn commission on many travel reservations.
Some airline tickets
International airline tickets
Ground transportation including limos
People all need travel arrangements at some point in time. Those who take road trips need hotel reservations. Those who need to travel for business need airline tickets, rental cars, and hotel reservations. Families want to experience vacations with their loved ones. People visit family and relatives. Most people who win money say they are going to spend it to take a nice vacation. Newly married couples go on honeymoons. You are not selling something that is hard to sell. People contact you for help, you are not calling them or approaching them trying to sell them something they don’t want.
Educating the public is the main thing any travel agent must do. Most people put travel agents into the same category as real estate agents. They believe it costs additional to use a travel agent. This is untrue. In many cases a travel agent can get a better price than the general public through the suppliers who work only with travel agents. Many people do not know all the options for booking a vacation. A good travel agent does. Once people are educated on how a travel agent gets paid, they are more willing to work with travel agents. If a person knows that if he or she let you book a hotel and it will cost the same price regardless, she or he will work with you. It is important to let people know how you can help them save time and money on their travel arrangements.
So how do you get into the industry? Many people think they must go to school or become certified. This is not true. You can get into the industry and begin training. I don’t recommend anyone spend thousands on a travel school until he or she knows this is a career that he or she will really want to pursue. The truth is you do not have to spend thousands to get trained. There are many courses free to travel agents from suppliers. There are also organizations such as ICTA (Institute of Certified Travel Agents) who offer courses as you get more years experience in the industry. CLIA also offers courses. There are some agencies that will offer training. Even if you decide this is a career you would like to pursue, you do not need to spend thousands to become an educated and competent travel agent. There are many courses you can take with suppliers and organizations to get a better education in travel. I truly believe a hands’ on approach is the best way to become a better travel agent. Learning to work with suppliers and how to find the information your clients need is an important part of becoming a good travel agent.
How can you find an agency to work with? There are a few organizations dedicated to independent travel agents. NACTA and OSSN are the top organizations. NACTA stands for National Association of Commissioned Travel Agents. OSSN stands for Outside Sales Support Network. You can also search online for home-based travel agent programs. I would never recommend anyone spending a lot of money to start this business. It is key to first try and see if it is something you would really want to do and get training before you invest too much money into it. Get involved in the industry first and see if it is really a career that is best for you.
While computers are now an important part of the lives of human beings, there was a time where computers did not exist. Knowing the history of computers and how much progression has been made can help you understand just how complicated and innovative the creation of computers really is.
Unlike most devices, the computer is one of the few inventions that does not have one specific inventor. Throughout the development of the computer, many people have added their creations to the list required to make a computer work. Some of the inventions have been different types of computers, and some of them were parts required to allow computers to be developed further.
Perhaps the most significant date in the history of computers is the year 1936. It was in this year that the first “computer” was developed. It was created by Konrad Zuse and dubbed the Z1 Computer. This computer stands as the first as it was the first system to be fully programmable. There were devices prior to this, but none had the computing power that sets it apart from other electronics.
It wasn’t until 1942 that any business saw profit and opportunity in computers. This first company was called ABC computers, owned and operated by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. Two years later, the Harvard Mark I computer was developed, furthering the science of computing.
Over the course of the next few years, inventors all over the world began to search more into the study of computers, and how to improve upon them. Those next ten years say the introduction of the transistor, which would become a vital part of the inner workings of the computer, the ENIAC 1 computer, as well as many other types of systems. The ENIAC 1 is perhaps one of the most interesting, as it required 20,000 vacuum tubes to operate. It was a massive machine, and started the revolution to build smaller and faster computers.
The age of computers was forever altered by the introduction of International Business Machines, or IBM, into the computing industry in 1953. This company, over the course of computer history, has been a major player in the development of new systems and servers for public and private use. This introduction brought about the first real signs of competition within computing history, which helped to spur faster and better development of computers. Their first contribution was the IBM 701 EDPM Computer.
A Programming Language Evolves
A year later, the first successful high level programming language was created. This was a programming language not written in ‘assembly’ or binary, which are considered very low level languages. FORTRAN was written so that more people could begin to program computers easily.
The year 1955, the Bank of America, coupled with Stanford Research Institute and General Electric, saw the creation of the first computers for use in banks. The MICR, or Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, coupled with the actual computer, the ERMA, was a breakthrough for the banking industry. It wasn’t until 1959 that the pair of systems were put into use in actual banks.
During 1958, one of the most important breakthroughs in computer history occurred, the creation of the integrated circuit. This device, also known as the chip, is one of the base requirements for modern computer systems. On every motherboard and card within a computer system, are many chips that contain information on what the boards and cards do. Without these chips, the systems as we know them today cannot function.
Gaming, Mice, & the Internet
For many computer users now, games are a vital part of the computing experience. 1962 saw the creation of the first computer game, which was created by Steve Russel and MIT, which was dubbed Spacewar.
The mouse, one of the most basic components of modern computers, was created in 1964 by Douglass Engelbart. It obtained its name from the “tail” leading out of the device.
One of the most important aspects of computers today was invented in 1969. ARPA net was the original Internet, which provided the foundation for the Internet that we know today. This development would result in the evolution of knowledge and business across the entire planet.
It wasn’t until 1970 that Intel entered the scene with the first dynamic RAM chip, which resulted in an explosion of computer science innovation.
On the heels of the RAM chip was the first microprocessor, which was also designed by Intel. These two components, in addition to the chip developed in 1958, would number among the core components of modern computers.
A year later, the floppy disk was created, gaining its name from the flexibility of the storage unit. This was the first step in allowing most people to transfer bits of data between unconnected computers.
The first networking card was created in 1973, allowing data transfer between connected computers. This is similar to the Internet, but allows for the computers to connect without use of the Internet.
Household PC’s Emerge
The next three years were very important for computers. This is when companies began to develop systems for the average consumer. The Scelbi, Mark-8 Altair, IBM 5100, Apple I and II, TRS-80, and the Commodore Pet computers were the forerunners in this area. While expensive, these machines started the trend for computers within common households.
One of the most major breathroughs in computer software occurred in 1978 with the release of the VisiCalc Spreadsheet program. All development costs were paid for within a two week period of time, which makes this one of the most successful programs in computer history.
1979 was perhaps one of the most important years for the home computer user. This is the year that WordStar, the first word processing program, was released to the public for sale. This drastically altered the usefulness of computers for the everyday user.
The IBM Home computer quickly helped revolutionize the consumer market in 1981, as it was affordable for home owners and standard consumers. 1981 also saw the the mega-giant Microsoft enter the scene with the MS-DOS operating system. This operating system utterly changed computing forever, as it was easy enough for everyone to learn.
The Competition Begins : Apple vs. Microsoft
Computers saw yet another vital change during the year of 1983. The Apple Lisa computer was the first with a graphical user interface, or a GUI. Most modern programs contain a GUI, which allows them to be easy to use and pleasing for the eyes. This marked the beginning of the out dating of most text based only programs.
Beyond this point in computer history, many changes and alterations have occurred, from the Apple-Microsoft wars, to the developing of microcomputers and a variety of computer breakthroughs that have become an accepted part of our daily lives. Without the initial first steps of computer history, none of this would have been possible.